Lancaster County was chartered by the Virginia General Assembly in 1651 on the same day as Gloucester County making them the 12th and 13th counties established in the Virginia Colony. The present Courthouse was built in 2010 and houses county records maintained virtually intact since 1652.
According to the 2010 census, the population of Lancaster County is 11,391. The latest population estimate (July 1, 2018), as provided by the U.S. Census Bureau lowers this number to 10,783. The population figures (2010 census) for the county's three incorporated towns are:
- Irvington - 432
- Kimarnock - 1,430
- White Stone - 352
Other statistics of note:
- Median income (2017 estimate): $51,495
- Median age ( 2017 estimate): 56.3
- Average household size: 2.13
Lancaster County lies in Virginia's coastal plain and is bounded on the east by the Chesapeake Bay and to the south and west by the Rappahannock River. Both water bodies are major contributors to the county's 180 miles of shoreline. The terrain is generally flat with the highest elevations around 100 feet above sea level.